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MANUAL OF ZEN BUDDHISM

DAISETZ TEITARO SUZUKI, D.LITT.

The Ten Oxherding Pictures

From The Manual of Zen Buddhism, D.T. Suzuki

By Shubun (15th Century)

Zen Buddhism art

1. Undisciplined

With his horns fiercely projected in the air the beast snorts,
Madly running over the mountain paths, farther and farther he goes astray!
A dark cloud is spread across the entrance of the valley,
And who knows how much of the fine fresh herb is trampled under his wild hoofs!

2. Discipline Begun

I am in possession of a straw rope, and I pass it through his nose,
For once he makes a frantic attempt to run away, but he is severely whipped and whipped;
The beast resists the training with all the power there is in a nature wild and ungoverned,
But the rustic oxherd never relaxes his pulling tether and ever-ready whip.

Zen Buddhism art

3. In Harness

Gradually getting into harness the beast is now content to be led by the nose,
Crossing the stream, walking along the mountain path, he follows every step of the leader;
The leader holds the rope tightly in his hand never letting it go,
All day long he is on the alert almost unconscious of what fatigue is.

Zen Buddhism art

4. Faced Round

After long days of training the result begins to tell and the beast is faced round,
A nature so wild and ungoverned is finally broken, he has become gentler;
But the tender has not yet given him his full confidence,
He still keeps his straw rope with which the ox is now tied to a tree.

Zen Buddhism art

5. Tamed

Under the green willow tree and by the ancient mountain stream,
The ox is set at liberty to pursue his own pleasures;
At the eventide when a grey mist descends on the pasture,
The boy wends his homeward way with the animal quietly following.

Zen Buddhism art

6. Unimpeded

On the verdant field the beast contentedly lies idling his time away,
No whip is needed now, nor any kind of restraint;
The boy too sits leisurely under the pine tree,
Playing a tune of peace, overflowing with joy.

Zen Buddhism art

7. Laissez Faire

The spring stream in the evening sun flows languidly along the willow-lined bank,
In the hazy atmosphere the meadow grass is seen growing thick;
When hungry he grazes, when thirsty he quaffs, as time sweetly slides,
While the boy on the rock dozes for hours not noticing anything that goes on about him.

Zen Buddhism art

8. All Forgotten

The beast all in white now is surrounded by the white clouds,
The man is perfectly at his ease and care-free, so is his companion;
The white clouds penetrated by the moon-light cast their white shadows below,
The white clouds and the bright moon-light-each following its course of movement.

Zen Buddhism art

9. The Solitary Moon

Nowhere is the beast, and the oxherd is master of his time,
He is a solitary cloud wafting lightly along the mountain peaks;
Clapping his hands he sings joyfully in the moon-light,
But remember a last wall is still left barring his homeward walk.

Zen Buddhism art

10. Both Vanished

Both the man and the animal have disappeared, no traces are left,
The bright moon-light is empty and shadowless with all the ten-thousand objects in it;
If anyone should ask the meaning of this,
Behold the lilies of the field and its fresh sweet-scented verdure.

 

Manual of Zen Buddhism

MANUAL OF ZEN BUDDHISM

DAISETZ TEITARO SUZUKI, D.LITT.

Professor of Buddhist Philosophy in the Otani University, Kyoto

[1935]

[scanned at www.sacred-texts.com October 2000]

CONTENTS

EDITOR'S FOREWORD

EDITOR'S NOTE

AUTHOR'S PREFACE

I. GATHAS AND PRAYERS

1. On Opening the Sutra

2. Confession

3. The Threefold Refuge

4. The Four Great Vows

5. The Worshipping of the Sarira

6. The Teaching of the Seven Buddhas

7. The Gatha of Impermanence

8. The Yemmei Kwamon Ten-Clause Sutra

9. Prayer on the Occasion of Feeding the Hungry Ghosts

10. General Prayer

11. Prayer of the Bell

II. THE DHARANIS

1. Dharani of Removing Disasters

2. Dharani of the Great Compassionate One

3. Dharani of the Victorious Buddha-Crown

III. THE SUTRAS

1. The Prajnaparamita-hridaya-sutra, or Shingyo (complete)

2. The Kwannongyo, or "Samantamukha Parivarta" (complete)

3. The Kongokyo, or Vajracchedika (the first half and extracts from the second half)

4. The Lankavatara Sutra, or Ryogakyo (extracts)

5. The Ryogonkyo, or Surangama Sutra (résumé)

IV. FROM THE CHINESE ZEN MASTERS

1. Bodhidharma on the Twofold Entrance to the Tao

2. The Third Patriarch on "Believing in Mind"

3. From Hui-neng's Tan-ching

4. Yoka Daishi's "Song of Enlightenment"

5. Baso (Ma-tsu) and Sekito (Shih-tou)

6. Obaku's (Huang-po) Sermon from "Treatise on the Essentials of the Transmission of Mind"

7. Gensha on the Three Invalids (from the Hekiganshu or Pi-yen Chi)

8. The Ten Oxherding Pictures, I

The Ten Oxherding Pictures, II

V. FROM THE JAPANESE ZEN MASTERS

1. Daio Kokushi on Zen

2. Daio Kokushi's Admonition

3. Daito Kokushi's Admonition and Last Poem

4. Kwanzan Kokushi's Admonition

5. Muso Kokushi's Admonition

6. Hakuin's "Song of Meditation"

VI. THE BUDDHIST STATUES AND PICTURES IN A ZEN MONASTERY

Buddhas; Bodhisattvas; Arhats; Protecting Gods; Historical Figures

EDITOR'S FOREWORD TO SECOND EDITION

Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki, D.Litt., Professor of Buddhist Philosophy in the Otani University, Kyoto, was born in 1870. He is probably now the greatest living authority on Buddhist philosophy, and is certainly the greatest authority on Zen Buddhism. His major works in English on the subject of Buddhism number a dozen or more, and of his works in Japanese as yet unknown to the West there are at least eighteen. He is, moreover, as a chronological bibliography of books on Zen in English clearly shows, the pioneer teacher of the subject outside Japan, for except for Kaiten Nukariya's Religion of the Samurai (Luzac and Co., 1913) nothing was known of Zen as a living experience, save to the readers of The Eastern Buddhist (1921-1939), until the publication of Essays in Zen Buddhism (Volume I) in 1927.

Dr. Suzuki writes with authority. Not only has he studied original works in Sanskrit, Pali, Chinese and Japanese, but he has an up-to-date knowledge of Western thought in German and French as well as in the English which he speaks and writes so fluently. He is, moreover, more than a scholar; he is a Buddhist. Though not a priest of any Buddhist sect, he is honoured in every temple in Japan, for his knowledge of spiritual things, as all who have sat at his feet bear witness, is direct and profound. When he speaks of the higher stages of consciousness he speaks as a man who dwells therein, and the impression he makes on those who enter the fringes of his mind is that of a man who seeks for the intellectual symbols wherewith to describe a state of awareness which lies indeed "beyond the intellect".

To those unable to sit at the feet of the Master his writings must be a substitute. All these, however, were Out of print in England by 1940, and all remaining stocks in Japan were destroyed in the fire which consumed three-quarters of Tokyo in 1945. When, therefore, I reached Japan in 1946, I arranged with the author for the Buddhist Society, London--my wife and myself as its nominees--to begin the publication of his Collected Works, reprinting the old favourites, and printing as fast as possible translations of the many new works which the Professor, self-immured in his house at Kyoto, had written during the war.

This undertaking, however, was beyond the powers of the Buddhist Society, and we therefore secured the assistance of Rider and Co., who, backed by the vast resources of the House of Hutchinson, can honour the needs of such a considerable task.

Of Zen itself I need say nothing here, but the increasing sale of books on the subject, such as The Spirit of Zen by Alan Watts (Murray), and the series of original translations of Chinese Zen Scriptures and other works published by the Buddhist Society prove that the interest of the West is rising rapidly. Zen, however, is a subject extremely easy to misunderstand, and it is therefore important that the words of a qualified Master should come readily to hand.

CHRISTMAS HUMPHREYS

President of the Buddhist Society, London

1948

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